Question 1 : What is ping and its protocol
- Ping is a computer network administration software utility used to test the reach ability of a host on an IP network. Ping uses ICMP protocol and its port number is 7.
Question 2 : What is LAN/WAN ?
- LAN: LAN stands for local area network; Lan is network of connected devices that exist within a specific location. Lan may be found in homes, offices, educational institutions.
- WAN: WAN stands for Wide area network, a wan are a communication network that spans a large geographical area such as across cities, states or countries.
Question 3 : What is firewall, how to change the settings for windows firewall, 3rd party firewalls ?
- Firewall is a network security system that monitor and control incoming and outgoing network traffic based on the predefined security rules.
- 3rd party firewall name is Glass wire , most 3rd party firewall easily allow you to easily control which application on your computer can connect to the internet, they will popup the windows for asking the access for allow the outgoing connections.
Question 4 : What is Proxy Server ?
- Proxy server is also known as the application level gateway and it is a computer that acts as a gateway between a local network and the large scale network such as internet. All incoming data enter through one port and is forwarded to the rest of the network via another port bcz of this, it is much more difficult for hackers to get the internal addresses and details of a private network.
Question 5 : What is MBR?
- MBR: MBR stands for the master boot record and it is the information in the first sector of any hard disk that defines how and where the operating system is located, so that it can be boot in to the computers main storage or the Random access memory (RAM), sometimes MBR is also called as the “partition sector” or the “master partition table”.
Question 6 : Event viewer? LOG files ?
The Windows Event Viewer shows a log of application and system messages, including errors, information messages, and warnings. It’s a useful tool for troubleshooting all kinds of different Windows problems.
- Application: The Application log records events related to Windows system components, such as drivers and built-in interface elements.
- System: The System log records events related to programs installed on the system.
- Security: When security logging is enabled (it’s off by default in Windows), this log records events related to security, such as logon attempts and resource access.
Question 7 : What is NAT? How does it work?
- NAT: NAT stands for the network address translation, NAT allows a single device to sit between a local area network and the internet and forward traffic to the appropriate host we probably know this as a router, the advantage of NAT is multiple computers can share same public IP address. There are multiple ways is network address translation.
- Dynamic NAT: With Dynamic NAT, a router will maintain a list of public IP addresses. When a host behind the network needs to transmit or receive, the router will select one of the public IP addresses that is not currently in use, and forward any packets accordingly. As a result, this means a host’s IP address can change at any given moment.
- Static NAT: Internal networks, like your home or office network, do not use the same IP addressing system that’s used on the public Internet. Any networked device effectively has two IP addresses. The first is a private one, and that’s only reachable from within that network. The second is the one that’s externally accessible. Static NAT makes it possible to create a direct, one-to-one link between a private IP address and a static, public IP address.
- Overloading or PAT: here multiple internal IP addresses are mapped to a single public IP address. This is done by giving each internal host a corresponding port. For instance, suppose you’ve got three computers on an internal network, and a public IP address of 18.104.22.168. Each of those internal computers could theoretically be accessible via 22.214.171.124:2001, 126.96.36.199:2002 and 188.8.131.52:2003. This is commonly known as Port Address Translation (PAT)
Question 8 : What is OU?
- OU: OU stands for the organizational unit, An organizational unit (OU) is a subdivision within an Active Directoryinto which you can place users, groups, computers, and other organizational units.
Question 9 : Classes of IP?
There are 5 Classes of IP address
Question 10 : What is MAC address?
- MAC stands for the media access control, MAC address is your computer unique hardware number, it is used for the communication at the data link layer of a network segment.
Question 11 : Windows Advanced boot options ?
- Repair your computer
- Safe Mode.
- Safe Mode with Networking
- Safe Mode with command Prompt
- Enable Boot Logging.
- Enable Low Resolution video
- Last known good configuration
- Directory Service restore mode.
- Debugging Mode.
- Disable automatic restart on system failure.
- Disable driver signature enforcement.
- Start Windows Normally
Question 12 : OSI Layers (Characteristics of the OSI Layers) ?
- Application Layer
- Presentation Layer
- Session Layer
- Transport Layer
- Network Layer
- Data Link Layer
- Physical Layer : It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components.
Question 13 : What are the Mother Board Components ?
- Memory Slot
- Power connector
- CPU Socket
- SATA Port
- VGA Slot
- IDE Port
- Audio Port
- LAN Port
- PCI Slots
- PS\2 Keyboard\Mouse Port
- Printer parallel port
- USB Port
Question 14 : What is schema ?
- The schema is the active directory compnent that defines all the object and attributes that the directory services used to store data.
Question 15 : How To Check Which Server Holds Which Role?
- Netdom query FSMO.